Tag: colonizationPage 1 of 3

California Native History Contexts, Generally

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , September 5th, 2022


In recent months I have been delving into records of the California Superintendency. I have studied several California tribes in the past, namely the Tolowa and Shasta tribes,…


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The Upper Umpqua and Yoncalla are Removed to the Umpqua Reservation

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , August 6th, 2022


A subject which has had little clarity in the past is when were the Umpqua and Southern Kalapuya, the Yoncallas, resettled to the Umpqua Reservation at Coles Valley….


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Persistence of Genocide Upon the Chetco People

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , January 6th, 2022


The Chetco Indians, perhaps more than nearly any other tribe on the Oregon coast, were repeatedly attacked by racist white settlers before their removal. In a previous set…


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Records of the Cascades Watlala Removal to Grand Ronde

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , September 26th, 2021


Joel Palmer’s letters during his superintendency lend themselves to a timeline for the removal of most tribes. Palmer penned orders and received reports from his Indian agents, sub…


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After Halting Native Burning, Came Grasshoppers

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , August 23rd, 2021


Barely ten years following the stopping of tribes setting fires in the Willamette and Umpqua valleys, signs of the change visited the settlers. Settlers were visited with scourges…


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A Policy of Forfeiture of Rights and Annuities under the Peace Treaty of 1853

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , August 16th, 2021


In numerous essays on this blog I have noted that many of the tribes considered the most violent, and those who had participated in the wars in southwestern…


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Forced to Pay for the Rogue River 1853 War

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , August 15th, 2021


One of the most egregious of acts against the Rogue River tribes in southern Oregon was making them pay for the destruction of the property of the American…


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Champinefu Temporary Reservation at Corvallis

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , August 4th, 2021


In March 1855 there was formed a temporary reservation for Champinefu Kalapuyans at Corvallis. This was one of over a dozen such temporary reservations, sometimes called encampments for…


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Yamhill Dogs Chase Comegys’ Hogs

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , July 12th, 2021


A letter was delivered in person to Joel Palmer, Indian Superintendent of Oregon, in 1855 of a complaint of Jacob Comegys about his pigs being chased and killed…


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Imagining the American Nation, and Ignoring the Tribes

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , December 11th, 2020


In the early nineteenth century, the United States assumed ownership of all of the Oregon Territory through “right of discovery”, first adjudicated in the United States Supreme Court…


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Slavery at Canyonville, 1853

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , April 8th, 2020


The subject of slavery in Oregon goes back to the first wave of settlers who came to the territory in 1844 and after. These first settlers combined with…


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Causes of the 1853 Rogue River War

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , March 30th, 2020


The first Rogue River War was a series of skirmishes and battles between mainly gold miners and the tribes. The miners had no regard for the tribes and…


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Baleful Gifts of Civilization: Smallpox Epidemic 1853

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , March 26th, 2020


  It is well recording in numerous sources that diseases from Europe came with the exploring Whitemen and infected millions of the indigenous peoples of the World with…


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Major Benjamin Alvord discusses Eastern Oregon Settlement, 1853

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , March 26th, 2020


In 1853, the former Superintendent of Indian Affairs of Oregon Anson Dart had been forced to resign as none of his nineteen treaties with the tribes were ratified….


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Soc-te-la Chief of the Luckimute Kalapuya People

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , March 24th, 2020


The following section of a letter to General Joel Palmer details that at least one chief Soc-te-la knew they were to remove and was working to gather his…


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Elijah White Romanticizes Oregon Tribal Peoples

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , March 16th, 2020


Dr. Elijah White was a missionary and the first Indian sub-Agent of the Oregon territory. He was then (1837) part of Jason Lee’s Methodist Mission but had a…


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Modeste Demers Ethnographic Descriptions of the Tribes, 1839

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , January 2nd, 2020


Modeste Demers was assigned with the Oregon Territory, in 1837, at the same time as Francois Norbert Blanchet and they traveled together overland to their assignment in canoes…


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Blanchet’s Mission to Vancouver, 1841

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , January 1st, 2020


Reverend Blanchet traveled to Fort Vancouver after his mission to the Clackamas. In Vancouver, there was much more orderly town life, the chapels in the fort being served…


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Blanchet’s Mission to the Cascades, 1841

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , December 30th, 2019


  Blanchet’s mission to the Cascades is perhaps his first visit to this location. His interactions with Tamakoun, also later called Tomaquin, are quite revealing of the tribe…


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Blanchet’s Mission at the Walamette Village, 1841

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , December 30th, 2019


The following is report from a Notice, Notice No. 4, part of a series of reports of the Catholic missionary Francois Norbert Blanchet (September 30, 1795 – June…


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Blanchet’s Missions to the Clackamas, 1841-1842

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , December 30th, 2019


The following is a Notice, Notice No. 4, part of a series of reports of the Catholic missionary Francois Norbert Blanchet from 1841 to 1842 about his missionary…


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Nichaqwali Watlala peoples at Blue Lake

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , December 10th, 2019


The Nichaqwali people, a Cascades/Watlala Chinookan band, lived at the juncture of several cultural groups that lived in the larger region of the lower Columbia and who interacted…


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Ignoring Tribal History in a Contemporary Exhibit

Ethnohistory Research, LLC | David G. Lewis, PhD , October 27th, 2019


On 10/26, 2019 I visited the Open house at the Oregon State Archives, Salem, OR, and was supremely disappointed at their new exhibit Rust Rot Ruin. which documents…


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New Book: ARIMA BORN

Maximilian C. Forte , September 26th, 2019


Arima Born Revealing the History of Arima and its Mission through the Catholic Church’s Baptismal Registers, 1820–1916 by Maximilian C. Forte Montreal: Alert Press, 2019 The Catholic Mission…


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